Cardiology is the medical science concerning heart and vascular diseases.
The diseases specifically of the heart such as myocardial infarction; angina pectoris, valve dysfunctions, septic (myocarditis, pericarditis,endocarditis), rhythm disturbances, congenital malfunctions...
Arterial diseases concern the aorta and its secondary branches: coronaries, cervical branches, the thoracic and abdominal branches and the arteries to your limbs and to your brain.
The vein pathologies such as phlébitis, thrombosis, insufficiencies...
Secondary diseases stemming from risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, tobacco abuse, ...
The patient comes with complaints of chest pain, pain in the arms, breathing difficulty, dizziness, loss of consciousness, heart palpitations, unexplained fatigue, swelling of the feet, headaches... After a first analysis the general practitioner will request further cardiological assessment.
Once he has explained the symptoms, the cardiologist will make the physical examination: listen to their heart, lungs, arteries and examines the abdomen, legs and take the blood pressure.
According to the needs several different technical examinations are proposed:
Outpatient: nuclear like myocardial scintigraphy, scanner, Magnetic resonnance
Short stay for cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography, coronary angioplasty and stent placement, electrophysiological study (study of the electrical properties and treatment of the abnormalities like Wolf Parkinson White, Atrial Flutter, Atrial Fibrillation, Accessory pathway, ventricular arrhythmia... by radio frequency or cryoablation and pace maker or defibrillator implantation.
Inpatient for all the diseases of the heart and lining around the heart that do not respond adequately to medication or require special techniques, intensive care or surgery.
Treatments begin with lifestyle and dietary changes, followed by medication.
After different techniques may help like percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) which means balloon angioplasty, stent insertion, laser, ... for coronary diseases - The surgeon can Bypass graft perform.
For valve dysfunctions we can percutaneously open them (valve implantation) or close them (clip) but the most efficient is surgery, repair like aorta or mitral valvuloplasty, replacement with a prothese.
For heart rhythm abnormalities we treat with a radiofrequency ablation or a cryoablation and we can also implant a pace maker or a defibrillator.
For the muscle or the congenital disease surgery will correct the defect.
After hospitalization a training program is proposed.